Friday, December 21, 2012

Spanish influence on the Kapampangan language


Kapampangan is a language spoken by the Kapampangan ethnic group who can be found in the province of Pampanga, southern half of Tarlac province and some parts of Bataan province in the Philippines. It is the 6th most spoken language in the Philippines. Just like any other languages or dialects in the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia, it belongs to the family of Austronesian languages. Due to the 333 years of Spanish occupation of the Philippines, a lot of words were borrowed from Spanish. As a result, one will be surprised both languages have a lot of similar words.  Here is a list of some of those words borrowed from Spanish with their English translations.


Kapampangan
Spanish
English
papelis
papeles
papers
sipilyu
cepillo
toothbrush
mansanas
mansanas
apple
primeru
primero
first
kutsara
cuchara
spoon
tinidur
tinidor
fork
kutsilyu
cuchillo
knife
kusina
cocina
kitchen
gubyernu
gobierno
government
Dumingu
Domingo
Sunday
Kumusta?
Como estas?
How are you?
telepanu
telefono
telephone
eroplanu
Avion, aeroplano
airplane
kalbu
calvo
Bald, ball-headed
espada
Espada, sable
sword
lamesa
mesa
table
plantsa
plancha
iron (for clothes)
basu
vaso
Drinking glass
tasa
taza
cup
kabayu
caballo
horse
libru
libro
book
embudu
embudo
funnel
banyu
baño
bathroom
sapatus
zapatos
shoes
kotsi
coche
car
arinola
orinal
Chamber pot
lapis
lapiz
pencil
baka
vaca
cow
bola
bola
ball
agila
aguila
eagle
pabu
pavo
turkey
edad
edad
age
posu
pozo
well
kurtina
cortina
curtain
oras
horas
Time, hour
umpisa
empieza
Start, beginning
mantsa
mancha
stain
garayi
Garaje, cochera
garage
lugar
lugar
place
parul
Farol, linterna
lantern
gripu
grifo
faucet
sementeryu
cementerio
cemetery
Kampu santu
camposanto
graveyard
sigarilyu
cigarrillo
cigarette
kalabasa
calabaza
squash, pumpkin
pusta
apuesta
bet
diretsu
derecho
straight
berdi
verde
green
asul
azul
blue
unano
enano
midget
pantalun
pantalones
pants
Bandila, bandera
bandera
flag
inidoru
inidoro
Water closet
pero
pero
but
kanta
cantar
Sing, song, to sing
butika
botica
Pharmacy, drug store
San Jose, San Osip
San Jose
Saint Joseph
sibuyas
cebolla
onion
bastos
bastos
rude, impertinent, impolite, vulgar

Here are some examples of false friends or words that are similar in both languages but the meaning is totally different:


Kapampangan
Meaning
Similar Word in Spanish
Meaning in Spanish
Pwedi
It can be done
puede
It is possible or it can be done
Syempre
Of course
siempre
Forever or always
salta
Newcomer or new in town or recently arrived person
salta
jump
salbayi
bad
salvaje
Wild, savage
basta
Just like that or as long as
basta
enough
Dospordos
Club or bat for hitting
Dos por dos
Two times two
emasyadu
Not much
demasiado
Too much
diprensya
defective

diferencia
Difference or disagreement
kuryenti
electricity
corriente
current
Letse
dammit
leche
milk
itsura
appearance or the way you look
hechura
Form, cut (traje), shape, fashion, make, figure or form given to a thing (forma).
matsura
ugly
Mala + hechura
Bad form or bad shape
kursonada
Object of desire, crush, you’re friendly or cool to each other, he find you interesting
corazonada
feeling, hunch, sudden impulse
pulubi
beggar
pobre
poor
malas
Bad luck or unlucky
mala
Bad, bad luck, Imperfect, defective, vicious, wicked
sige
OK, go ahead
sigue
To continue or go on, to follow or to pursue
mismo
exactly
mismo
Same, similar, equal, selfsame, like, right
kwalta
wealth
cuarta
Fourth, quarter
medyu
Just a little bit, almost
medio
Half, middle, medium, average
kasadu
All set, it is set
casado
Married man
kasu
Case, however
caso
Case, event,
pandesal
A kind of small bun or bread that is very inexpensive in the Philippines.
Pan de sal
Literally means: “Bread of salt”
sabi
Said, say, tell
saber
Knowledge, to know, to learn
medida
Measuring tape or tape measure
medida
Measure, moderation, extent, degree
Bolero
flatterer
bolero
Spanish dance and musical rhythm
almusal
breakfast
almorzar
To lunch, eat lunch
kubu
hut
cubo
Cube, bucket, vat, hub
Kasi
Because
casi
Almost, nearly
Kantu
Street corner
canto
Edge, border
kutis
cheeks
cutis
Skin, complexion
Manehu
drive
manejo
Handling, running, operation
enganyu
attract
engaño
Error, mistake, deception, trick
tinda
sell
tienda
shop
Tindaan, tindahan
Shop, store for selling goods
tienda
shop
siguru
Maybe, perhaps, I think so
Seguro
Safe, certain, sure, trustworthy, insurance
siguradu
sure
asegurado
assured
kubeta
toilet
cubeta
Bucket, pail
kasilyas
toilet
casilla
Cabin, hut, little house
mamun
A kind of sponge cake
mamon
sucker
maski
However, whatever, whichever, whatever
Mas que
More than
puto
A kind of Rice cake
puto
Male whore, male version of puta
lamierda
To hang out with friends
La mierda
The shit, the feces
bida
Good person in the movie, protagonist
vida
Life, lifetime, living
kontrabida
Bad person in the movie, antagonist
Contra vida
Against life
llamadu
The person with the upper hand in a game, the person winning, the bet favored in a game
llamado
Named, so-called, appeal
dehadu
The person or bet disadvantaged in a game
dejado
Careless, slovenly, sloppy, scruffy, idle, indolent, Dejected, low-spirited
muchacho, -a
Maid, servant (used as an insult for people)
muchacho, -a
Boyish, girlish, childish, boy, girl, servant (has different meanings in Latin America)
budega
Storage room
bodega
Wine cellar, tavern, bar
boti
bottle
bote
Pot, jar, tin can
pera
money
pera
pear
retoki
Plastic surgery
retoque
Retouching, alteration
tocino
Sweetened meat
tocino
Bacon, salt pork
pasyal
Travel, tour
pasear
To go for a walk
pera
money
pela
Peseta
perwisyu
Pain in the ass, trouble, troublemaker
perjuicio
Harm, damage
pikun
Hot-headed, person who easily gets angry
picón
Lampoon or nipping jest employed to induce another to do or perform something, touchy
pitaka
wallet
petaca
Cigarette case, tobacco pouch, hip flask, suitcase
pitsu
Chicken breast
pecho
Bosom, chest
porma
Dress in a nice and fashionable way
forma
Shape, form, manner
regla
menstruation
regla
Ruler, rule, menstruation
terno
Clothes that match in color or style
terno
Trio, three-piece suit
loko
Moron, crazy, insane, mad
loco
Mad, crazy
maldito, -a
Bad or naughty person
maldito, -a
cursed, damned
manubela
Steering wheel
manivela
crank
tarantado
Idiot, stupid
atarantado
Stunned, dazed
Gago, -a
Idiot, stupid
Gago, -a
Stammerer, stutterer
kobrador
Bet collector in jueteng which is an illegal numbers game played in the Philippines.
cobrador
Tax collector
Agrabyadu, argabyadu
At a disadvantage
agraviado
offended



For your information:
Remember, in Kapampangan, ts is pronounced as ch like chart becomes tsart.
Kapampangan has no h so that garaje becomes garayi.
Kapampangan has no z, v, and f and so each letter becomes s, b, and p respectively.
They love to change o to u, although the meaning will just be the same like gripo=gripu.
In the Philippines, Spaniards are called Kastila from the word Castilla which is a region in modern-day Spain that used to be a kingdom which united the different kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula to become what we now know today as Spain.
Puta means whore in Spanish while in Kapampangan it may mean whore or later like, “See you later.”
While there is extensive borrowing of words from Spanish, the grammar is basically Kapampangan.
Most Filipinos do not know that the Spanish word “mas” is Spanish in origin and they basically use it everyday to say something in comparative statement. For example:
Mas + tamad(lazy) = mastamad(lazier)
Mas + malagu(beautiful) = masmalagu(more beautiful)

If there are some corrections, opinions, clarifications, questions, or something you may want to add, please feel free to say it. However, I am a very busy person so please forgive me if I may not be able to entertain you immediately.
Sources:
spanishdict.com
wikipedia.com
The American Heritage Pocket Spanish Dictionary

3 comments:

spanish courses in Tenerife said...

Thanks for all the information but i dont really understand at all, can u write it again?

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